Mathematics is fundamental to our understanding of the world. Therefore, there is no wondering why it is called the language of the universe since it is vitally important to our modern society. Mathematics has made a great impact everywhere you look from the satellites which beam our homes, to that faucet in our kitchen. Therefore, great mathematics have risen above the rest and they have names embedded within history.

### Pythagoras of Samos

Pythagoras of Samos is commonly regarded to as the founding father of modern mathematics. The famous Greek mathematician is also one of the first great scientists. Living around 570 to 495 BC, he is known for introducing the Pythagorean cult. It was the first group of mathematicians to study and advance the science. He is also credited with many trigonometry problems like the Pythagorean Theorem. The theorem today plays an important role in modern technological equipment and in modern measurements. It is the base of a huge portion of other mathematical areas and problems. Unlike some other ancient theories, the Pythagorean theorem served to the development of geometry and has opened the door leading to the modern study of mathematics.

### Girolamo Cardano

Girolamo Cardano was an Italian polymath strongly related to the term Renaissance man. He was a doctor by profession and during his active scientific days, he wrote more than hundred books. Girolamo besides being devoted to science was also a compulsive gambler and his habit led him to his very first scientific analysis of mathematics and probability. Due to his achievements in the field, he is regarded as one of the best mathematicians of all time. His gambling habit made him do a research and soon enough he realized he could win more if he previously expresses the probability of chance events using numbers. His idea was a revolutionary one and later led to the probability theory which further led to the birth of a new science field, statistics.

### Leonhard Euler

Leonhard Euler is probably the most prolific mathematician of all time. During his active scientific work, he published almost nine hundred books. He went blind in his late fifties and his productivity increased in many mathematical areas. He is best known for his formula * eiπ + 1 = 0* which is often called as the Euler’s number. Leonhard later became interested in Latin squares, so without his work today we probably wouldn’t have Sudoku.

### Leonardo Pisano Bigollo

Leonardo Pisano Bigollo is widely known as Leonardo Fibonacci. He is probably of the best middle ages mathematicians. Leonardo is best known for introducing the Fibonacci Series to the western society. On the other hand, he was well known to Indian mathematicians even before introducing the Fibonacci series. He also greatly contributed to the Arabic numbering system, for which he is commonly forgotten for.

### Alan Turing

Cryptanalyst and computer scientist Alan Turing by many is regarded as the best mathematicians and one of the greatest scientific minds of the 20th century. He worked both at the Cypher School in Britain and in the Government Code during the Second World War and during that time he made extremely significant discoveries while creating some groundbreaking methods revolving around code. His discoveries eventually led to cracking the German Enigma Encryptions which without any doubt have affected the outcome of the war and its time-scale.

### G.F. Bernhard Riemann

Bernhard Riemann was born in 1826 to a poor family. Due to his genius mind, he later became of the best and the most prominent mathematics of all time. His contributions to geometry are long. He also has a broad range of different theorems bearing his names like Riemannian Surfaces, Riemannian Geometry, and Riemann Integral. However, he is best known for his complex Riemann Hypothesis. It is an extremely complex problem revolving around the matter of the prime numbers’ distributions. His work many years after his death is still paving the way for some new contributions to the field.

### Carl Friedrich Gauss

Carl Friedrich Gauss made his first mathematics discoveries while in his teenage years. He wrote his greatest magnum opus, the incredible Disquisitiones Arithmeticae by the time he was only twenty-one. Many people know him today for his extraordinary mental abilities. While in the primary school, his skills were recognized by the local Duke who saw his talent and decided to send him to prestigious Collegium Carolinum. At that time it was the most prestigious mathematical university with many of the best mathematicians attending.

He graduated at the age of twenty-two and devoted to his scientific work. He later made extremely significant contributions in different mathematical areas. However, he is best known for his work on prime numbers. He introduced the famous Gaussian gravitational constant in Physics and more before he was twenty-four. He continued to work until his death at the age of seventy-seven. Scientist and mathematicians like Andrew Wiles, Terry Tao, Grigori Perelman, John Horton Conway, Paul Erdös and Georg Cantor also have greaty contributed to the various fields of mathematics.